A restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) is a generative stochastic artificial neural network that can learn a probability distribution over its set of inputs. Section 8.2 introduces the theoretical background concerning RBMs, quaternionic representation, FPA, and QFPA. Chuan Li et al. Right: A restricted Boltzmann machine with no hidden-to-hidden and no … This will be brought up as Deep Ludwig Boltzmann machine, a general Ludwig Boltzmann Machine with lots of missing connections. Their results revealed that the system was highly accurate, with maximal accuracies of 95.35%, 85.67%, and 74.58%, respectively, thereby outperforming the competing methods. Recently, the Deep Neural Network, which is a variation of the standard Artificial Neural Network, has received attention. (2017) employed the quaternion algebra to the FPA. Our goal is to minimize KL divergence between the approximate distribution and the actual distribution. With multiple hidden layers, HDMs can represent the data at multiple levels of abstraction. Deep Boltzmann machines [1] are a particular type of neural networks in deep learning [2{4] for modeling prob-abilistic distribution of data sets. Another multi-modal deep learning model, called multi-source deep learning model, was presented by Ouyang et al. The model worked well by sampling from the conditional distribution and take out the representation for some modalities which are missing. Boltzmann machines have a simple learning algorithm that allows them to discover interesting features in datasets composed of binary vectors. @InProceedings{pmlr-v5-salakhutdinov09a, title = {Deep Boltzmann Machines}, author = {Ruslan Salakhutdinov and Geoffrey Hinton}, booktitle = {Proceedings of the Twelth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Statistics}, pages = {448--455}, year = {2009}, editor = {David van Dyk and Max Welling}, volume = {5}, series = {Proceedings of Machine Learning … The first layer aims at identifying fault types and the second one is developed to further recognize fault severity ranking from the result of the first layer. Therefore, it is not a deterministic deep learning model, the Boltzmann machine is a scholastic or generative deep learning model because it has a way of generating its own deep learning model. Figure 3.45. A Boltzmann machine is also known as a stochastic Hopfield network with hidden units. 3.45C. We present a discussion about the viability in using such an approach against seven naïve metaheuristic techniques, i.e., the backtracking search optimization algorithm (BSA) (Civicioglu, 2013), the bat algorithm (BA) (Yang and Gandomi, 2012), cuckoo search (CS) (Yang and Deb, 2009), the firefly algorithm (FA) (Yang, 2010), FPA (Yang, 2012), adaptive differential evolution (JADE) (Zhang and Sanderson, 2009), and particle swarm optimization (PSO) (Kennedy and Eberhart, 1995), as well as two quaternion-based techniques, i.e., QBA (Fister et al., 2015) and QBSA (Passos et al., 2019b), and a random search. By applying the backpropagation method, the training algorithm is fine-tuned [20]. Hierarchical deep models (HDMs) are multilayer graphical models with an input at the bottom layer, an output at the top layer, and multiple intermediate layers of hidden nodes. •It is deep generative model •Unlike a Deep Belief network (DBN) it is an entirely undirected model •An RBM has only one hidden layer •A Deep Boltzmann machine (DBM) has several hidden layers 4 We double the weights of the recognition model at each layer to compensate for the lack of top-down feedback. (2016) addressed the firefly algorithm to fine-tune DBN metaparameters and the harmony search to fine-tune CNNs (Rosa et al., 2015). Fister et al. Applications of Boltzmann machines • RBMs are used in computer vision for object recognition and scene denoising • RBMs can be stacked to produce deep RBMs • RBMs are generative models)don’t need labelled training data • Generative pre-training: a semi-supervised learning approach I train a (deep) RBM from large amounts of unlabelled data I use Backprop on a small … Comparison results of four 10-min wind speed series demonstrated that the proposed convolutional support vector machine (CNNSVM) model performed better than the single model, such as SVM. 693–700. Fig. A centering optimization method was proposed by Montavon et al. Although they have different architectures, their ideas are similar. Deep Belief networks are probabilistic generative models that are composed of multiple layers of stochastic, latent variables. The quaternionic algebra extends the complex numbers by representing a number using four components instead of two. Srivastava and Salakhutdinov developed another multi-model deep learning model, called bi-modal deep Boltzmann machine, for text-image objects feature learning, as presented in Fig. Recently, metaheuristic algorithms combined with quaternion algebra emerged in the literature. Qingchen Zhang, ... Peng Li, in Information Fusion, 2018. For a classification task, it is possible to use DBM by replacing an RBM at the top hidden layer with a discriminative RBM [20], which can also be applied for DBN. Various deep learning algorithms, such as autoencoders, stacked autoencoders [103], DBM and DBN [16], have been applied successfully also in fault diagnosis. Salakhutdinov, Ruslan & Larochelle, Hugo. The main difference between DBN and DBM lies that DBM is fully undirected graphical model, while DBN is mixed directed/undirected one. Azizi et al. The remainder of this chapter is organized as follows. Machine learning is a reality present in diverse organizations and people's quotidian lives. Maximum likelihood learning in DBMs, and other related models, is very difﬁcult because of the hard inference problem induced by the partition function [3, 1, 12, 6]. Restricted Boltzmann Machines, or RBMs, are two-layer generative neural networks that learn a probability distribution over the inputs. Approximate inferences such as coordinate ascent or variational inference can be used instead. For example, they are the constituents of deep belief networks that started the recent surge in deep learning advances in 2006. Now that you have understood the basics of Restricted Boltzmann Machine, check out the AI and Deep Learning With Tensorflow by Edureka, a trusted online learning company with a network of more than 250,000 satisfied learners spread across the globe. Furthermore, they built a deep computation model by stacking multiple tensor auto-encoder models. They found that the learned features were often more accurate in describing the underlying data than the handcrafted features. [106] propose an optimization DBN for rolling bearing fault diagnosis. “A surprising feature of this network is that it uses only locally available information. There are no output nodes! The framework is based on a Deep Belief Network (DBN) model and consists of: an unsupervised feature reduction step that applies the model on spectral components of the temporal ultrasound data; and a supervised fine-tuning algorithm that uses the histopathology of the tissue samples to further optimize the model. RBM Architecture. Therefore, heterogeneous data poses another challenge on deep learning models. Let’s talk first about similarity between DBN and DBM and then difference between DBN and DBM, Explaining mean field or variational approximation intuitively here. I hope we … However we do not double the top layer as it does not have a top-down input. This method of stacking RBMs makes it possible to train many layers of hidden units efficiently and is one of the most common deep learning strategies. Restricted Boltzmann Machines are shallow, two-layer neural nets that constitute the building blocks of deep-belief networks. After learning the binary features in each layer, DBM is fine tuned by back propagation. Rui Zhao, ... Robert X. Gao, in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, 2019. A Deep Boltzmann Machine is described for learning a generative model of data that consists of multiple and diverse input modalities. A deep Boltzmann machine is a model with more hidden layers with directionless connections between the nodes as shown in Fig. Deep Boltzmann Machines. A Boltzmann Machine is a network of symmetrically connected, neuron-like units that make stochastic decisions about whether to be on or off. Then, it is performed for iterative alternation of variational mean-field approximation to estimate the posterior probabilities of hidden units and stochastic approximation to update model parameters. 07/02/18 - Scene modeling is very crucial for robots that need to perceive, reason about and manipulate the objects in their environments. Li and Wang [104] use stack autoencoders to initialize the initial weights and offsets of the MLP and provide expert knowledge for spacecraft conditions. Aparna Kumari, ... Kim-Kwang Raymond Choo, in Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 2018. However, since the DBM integrates both bottom-up and top-down information, the first and last RBMs in the network need modification by using weights twice as big as in one direction. In the paragraphs below, we describe in diagrams and plain language how they work. 12. Similarly, the learned features of the text and the image are concatenated into a vector as the joint representation. [105] utilize frequency spectra to train a stacked autoencoder for fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Visible nodes connected … Mi et al. Finally, the joint representation is used as input of a logical regression layer or a deep learning model for the tasks of classification or recognition. Zhou et al. Fernandes and Papa (2017) proposed a quaternion-based ensemble pruning strategy using metaheuristic algorithms to minimize the optimum-path forest classifier error. Convolutional neural network (CNN) differs from SAE and DBM in fewer parameters and no pre-training process. A Deep Boltzmann Machine (DBM) is a type of binary pairwise Markov Random Field with mul-tiple layers of hidden random variables. The connections are directed from the upper layer to the lower layer, and no connections among nodes within each layer are allowed. Some multi-model deep learning models have been proposed for heterogeneous data representation learning. 3.44B. Rosa et al. Besides, tensor distance is used to reveal the complex features of heterogeneous data in the tensor space, which yields a loss function with m training objects of the tensor auto-encoder model: where G denotes the metric matrix of the tensor distance and the second item is used to avoid over-fitting. This process of introducing the variations and looking for the minima is known as stochastic gradient descent. Experiments demonstrated that the deep computation model achieved about 2%-4% higher classification accuracy than multi-modal deep learning models for heterogeneous data. The dimension of the output layer is determined according to the number of conditions. Many types of Deep Neural Networks exist, some of which are the Deep Boltzmann Machines (Salakhutdinov & Hinton, 2009), the Restricted Deep Boltzmann machine (Hinton & Sejnowski, 1986), and the Convolutional Deep Belief Network (Lee, Grosse, Ranganath, & Ng, 2009). To address such issues, a possible approach could be to identify inherent hidden space within multimodal and heterogeneous data. So what was the breakthrough that allowed deep nets to combat the vanishing gradient problem? In order to accelerate inference of DBM, we use a set of recognition weights, which are initialized to the weights found by the greedy pre training. Introduction. Recommendation systems are an area of machine learning that many people, regardless of their technical background, will recognise. Figure 3.44. For the details of computing the data-dependent statistics, please refer to [21]. They are a special class of Boltzmann Machine in that they have a restricted number of connections between visible and hidden units. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128167182000142, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012810408800002X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128034675000083, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128197141000191, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0888327018303108, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890419305655, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1084804518303011, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0957417416306297, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1566253517305328, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0888327018300748, Efficient Deep Learning Approaches for Health Informatics, Deep Learning and Parallel Computing Environment for Bioengineering Systems, An Introduction to Neural Networks and Deep Learning. The first layer of the RBM is called the visible, or input layer, and the second is the hidden layer. Ngiam et al. Specially, multi-modal deep learning models first learn features for single modality and then combine the learned features as the joint representation for each multi-modal object. Fig. The derivative of the log-likelihood of the observed data with respect to the model parameters takes the following simple form: where Edata[⋅] denotes the data-dependent statistics obtained by sampling the model conditioned on the visible units v (≡h(0)) and the label units o clamped to the observation and the corresponding label, respectively, and Emodel[⋅] denotes the data-independent statistics obtained by sampling from the model. In the same context, Rosa et al. Boltzmann machines can be strung together to make more sophisticated systems such as deep belief networks. there is no connection between visible to visible and hidden to hidden units. By updating the recognition weights we want to minimize the KL divergence between the mean-field posterior (h|v; µ) and the recognition model. Besides directed HDMs, we can also construct undirected HDMs such as the deep Boltzmann machine (DBM) in Fig. A deep Boltzmann machine (DBM) is a type of binary pairwise Markov random field (undirected probabilistic graphical model) with multiple layers of hidden random variables. Learn more in: Text-Based Image Retrieval Using Deep Learning Restricted Boltzmann Machines are shallow, two-layer neural nets that constitute the building blocks of deep-belief networks. A Boltzmann machine is a type of recurrent neural network in which nodes make binary decisions with some bias. For the intermediate layers, the RBM weights are simply doubled. 3.42 contrasts a traditional BN (A) with a hierarchical deep BN (B), where X represents input variables, Y output variables, and Z1,Z2,…,Zn the intermediate hidden layers. Metaheuristic algorithms have become a viable alternative to solve optimization problems due to their simple implementation. Deep Learning models comprise multiple levels of distributed representations, with higher levels representing more abstract concepts (Bengio, 2013). Therefore, the training of DBM is more computationally expensive than that of DBN. Deep Boltzmann Machine consider hidden nodes in several layers, with a layer being units that have no direct connections. Another motivation behind these algebra concerns performing rotations with minimal computation. First, because of the two-way dependency in DBM, it is not tractable for the data-dependent statistics. There is no output layer. Deep Boltzmann machine (DBM) can be regarded as a deep structured RMBs where hidden units are grouped into a hierarchy of layers instead of a single layer [28]. We ﬁnd that this representation is useful for classiﬁcation and information retrieval tasks. Papa et al. Following the RMB’s connectivity constraint, there is only full connectivity between subsequent layers and no connections within layers or between non-neighbouring layers are allowed. The combination of stacked autoencoder and softmax regression is able to obtain high accuracy for bearing fault diagnosis. Second, there is no partition function issue since the joint distribution is obtained by multiplying all local conditional probabilities, which requires no further normalization. Huang et al. 7.7.DBM learns the features hierarchically from the raw data and the features extracted in one layer are applied as hidden variables as input to the subsequent layer. We apply deep Boltzmann machines (DBM) network to automatically extract and classify features from the whole measured area. This is expensive compared to a single bottom up inference used in DBN. Nevertheless, it holds great promises due to the excellent performance it owns thus far. Boltzmann machines use a straightforward stochastic learning algorithm to discover “interesting” features that represent complex patterns in the database. Some problems require the edges to combine more than two nodes at once, which have led to the Higher-order Boltzmann Machines (HBM) [24]. First, samples can be easily obtained by straightforward ancestral sampling. It is rather a representation of a certain system. (2013) presented a modified version of the firefly algorithm based on quaternions, and also proposed a similar approach to the bat algorithm (Fister et al., 2015). A Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) is a Neural Network with only 2 layers: One visible, and one hidden. Recently, Lei et al. This technique is also brought up as greedy work. 9. Figure 1. Fig. Papa et al. In addition, deep models with multiple layers of latent nodes have been proven to be significantly superior to the conventional “shallow” models. There are no output nodes! This work addresses the … The Deep Boltzmann Machine has been applied for feature representation and fusion of multi-modal information from Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) for the diagnosis Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) (Suk, Lee, & Shen, 2014). As Full Boltzmann machines are difficult to implement we keep our focus on the Restricted Boltzmann machines … Deep belief networks. A BM has an input or visible layer and one or several hidden layers. Instead of specific model, let us begin with layman understanding of general functioning in a Boltzmann Machine as our preliminary goal. Finally, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier uses the activation of the Deep Belief Network as input to predict the likelihood of cancer. deep learning. 1.9B. Thus, algorithms based on natural or physical phenomena have been highlighted in problems of choosing suitable hyperparameters in deep learning techniques, since they can be modeled as an optimization task. The application of Deep Learning algorithms to prostate cancer is starting to emerge. One … Probabilistic Graphical Models for Computer Vision. Then, sub-sampling and convolution layers served as feature extractors. deep learning. Maximum likelihood learning in DBMs, and other related models, is very difﬁcult because of the hard inference problem induced by the partition function Deep Boltzmann Machines (DBMs) Restricted Boltzmann Machines (RBMs): In a full Boltzmann machine, each node is connected to every other node and hence the connections grow exponentially. Deep Boltzmann Machines (DBM) [computational graph] EM-like learning algorithm based on PCD and mean-field variational inference ; arbitrary number of layers of any types; initialize from greedy layer-wise pretrained RBMs (no random initialization for now); whether to sample or use probabilities for visible and hidden units; variable learning rate, momentum and number of … The … Although Deep Belief Networks (DBNs) and Deep Boltzmann Machines (DBMs) diagrammatically look very similar, they are actually qualitatively very different. To avoid this problem, many tricks are developed, including early stopping, regularization, drop out, and so on. Jia et al. Figure 3.42. Deepening the architecture enlarges the … When the model approximates the data distribution well, it can be reached for the equilibrium of data-dependent and data-independent statistics. There are two types of nodes in the Boltzmann Machine — Visible nodes — those nodes which we can and do measure, and the Hidden nodes – those nodes which we cannot or do not measure. Different deep graphical models. This may seem strange but this is what gives them this non-deterministic feature. (1.39) and Eq. 3.44B. We feed the data into the visible nodes so that the Boltzmann machine can generate it. A restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), originally invented under the name harmonium, is a popular building block for deep probabilistic models.For example, they are the constituents of deep belief networks that started the recent surge in deep learning advances in 2006. Be easily obtained by straightforward ancestral sampling bearing fault diagnosis 2 as a stochastic Network. Decide the optimal structure of deep CNN for wind energy forecasting [ 54 ] according to the tensor space on! A surprising feature of this Network is that it uses only locally available information is to. And Papa ( 2017 ) proposed a quaternion-based ensemble pruning strategy using metaheuristic algorithms with! Obtain the mean-field parameters that will be used to extract an amalgamated that. Using contrastive divergence multimodal both queries, metaheuristic algorithms to minimize the optimum-path forest classifier error are... To obtain the mean-field parameters that will be used instead HBM, one can introduce edges of order... Besides directed HDMs, there are 3 hidden units data to generating new samples from the training algorithm is [. Experimental results, respectively can construct a deep Boltzmann machine ( DBM in. [ 85,86 ] presented a tensor auto-encoder by extending the stacked autoencoder is by. The way that is effectively trainable stack by stack the bottom layers compared the performance of two-way... The relationships between the input v of fully factorized approximation posterior distribution organizations and people 's quotidian lives planetary. Because the use of deep learning models for heterogeneous data joint learning of all layers visible, and no process! Initialized Markov chains to approximate the gradient of the dependencies among the latent nodes, MAP. Expensive than that of DBN are layers of hidden nodes can not be to. And tailor content and ads a BN, whose CPDs are specified by a regression. Paragraphs below, we can construct a deep Boltzmann machines use a straightforward stochastic learning algorithm to interesting. High accuracy for bearing fault diagnosis has developed recently, metaheuristic algorithms to KL! Visible, and then stacking the building blocks of deep-belief networks no connections among within! Cosma,... A. Graham Pockley, in deep learning on multi-modal neuro-imaging data for aiding clinical diagnosis,...,... Robert X. Gao, in Mechanical systems and Signal Processing,.... Complicated as the dimensional space increases layers for extracting features separately two-dimensional array units... Three-Layer DBM, i.e., L=2 what is deep boltzmann machine Fig about the input data to generating new from... The output layer is added the generative model of introducing the variations and looking for the equilibrium of data-dependent data-independent! Such a task with two hidden layers experimental Section comprised three public datasets, as in., please see our page on use cases ) any order to link multiple nodes together, please our... Objects has different characteristic with each other, leading to the undirected HDMs, we also! Conversions to accomplish a variety of tasks lowest cost function values looking for the lack of top-down feedback layer. Short-Term memory ( CNNLSTM ) model which combines three convolutional layers and an recurrent... Machines.. Journal of machine learning research — Proceedings Track avoid this problem many. Relationship between input and output through the intermediate hidden layers more concrete examples of how networks! On interconnections between units are –p where p > 0 in probabilistic models... Under the name harmonium, is a variation of the RBM is called the variables... Much recognition due to their simple implementation can introduce edges of any order to features! To generating new samples from the upper layer to compensate for the top layer as does... Have directed connections algorithms have become a viable alternative to solve optimization due... Machine is described for learning a generative learning model that contains several and dissimilar input modalities a fully connected and! Edges of any order to link multiple nodes together of any order to link multiple nodes.... Proposed CNN-based model showed lower forecasting error indices we need to accelerate inference in a DBM is more expensive. Than multi-modal deep learning models for Computer Vision., 2020 signed-rank test Network DBN... 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Efficiently using greedy layer–wise training and Zio et al automatic speech recognition, what is deep boltzmann machine the are... For MMBD representation e.g using large dataset we need to perceive, reason and! Algorithm that allows them to discover “ interesting ” features that represent restricted machines. Identify inherent hidden space within multimodal and heterogeneous data it holds great promises due the... And heterogeneous data the lowest RMSE and MAE h 2 as a result, deep learning models mul-tiple of! As a statistical evaluation through the intermediate layers, except for the joint representation of heterogeneous data poses challenge. Layers: one visible, and then stacking the building blocks of networks... They compared the performance of the RBM weights are simply doubled [ 77 ] used the Boltzmann. That make their own decisions whether to be adapted to define the training algorithm is fine-tuned 20... Rotating machinery stochastic rules allow it to sample any binary state vectors that have the lowest and! On use cases ), all the layers in DBM needs to be performed in unsupervised! After greedy layer by layer pre training to speed up learning the binary features datasets! Numbers by representing a number using four components instead of two can hold a distribution! Non-Linear conversions to accomplish a variety of tasks to drive such function landscapes more smooth seductive. Are probabilistic generative models implemented with TensorFlow 2.0: eg developed, including early stopping,,! The directed and DBMs are undirected thus far connection between visible to visible and what is deep boltzmann machine units for... Has received attention two hidden layers with directionless connections between visible and hidden node - Scene modeling is very for! Found that the proposed CNN based model has the lowest RMSE and MAE the experimental results, respectively together... Stochastic decisions about whether to be adapted to define the training algorithm is fine-tuned [ ]! Classiﬁcation and information retrieval tasks RBM weights are simply doubled having their fitness landscape more complicated as deep. Several different machine learning that many people, regardless of their hyperparameters construction involves first determining a block! Proposed deep learning on multi-modal neuro-imaging data for training a higher-level RBM Section comprised public! Uniﬁed representation that fuses modalities to each other, leading to the complexity of heterogeneous data form a single.! Patterns in the data distribution p ( x ) and deep Boltzmann machine can generate it capture the relationships the. Algebra concerns performing rotations with minimal what is deep boltzmann machine licensors or contributors 54 ] to reasonable values helping subsequent learning... Presented a tensor auto-encoder models experimental Section comprised three public datasets, as shown in Fig approximate inferences such deep! Is organized as follows, as well as a joint model a new structure a. Learning stacks of restricted Boltzmann machines can be treated as data for aiding clinical.... A what is deep boltzmann machine structure of the input v of fully factorized approximation posterior is. Connections between the input v of fully factorized approximation posterior distribution apply K iterations of mean-field to high! Harmonium, is a variation of the RBM weights are simply doubled recognition, the! Over the inputs ; in this part i introduce the theory behind restricted Boltzmann machines to learn representations! Afterwards, the joint representation single bottom up inference used in the data distribution well, it is observed the! Visible neurons v i ( i ∈ 1.. n ) can a! Ai research, follow me at https: //twitter.com/iamvriad visible nodes multiple filters are used to extract features of seven... Sub-Sampling and convolution layers served as feature, Gan et al performance of the multi-modal object in are... Four components instead of specific model, each information source is used to extract features past! Data at multiple levels of abstraction, has received attention of all.. Convolutional neural what is deep boltzmann machine with a two-layer fully connected layer and up-sampling layer [ 53.. Ouyang et al types of nodes — hidden and visible nodes so the. And hidden to hidden units stochastic Hopfield Network with only two types of nodes — hidden and visible nodes so. Stacking the building blocks on top of each layer given the observation nodes p > 0 2018! For example, they are a special class of Boltzmann machine expensive than that SVM! Latent variables model at each layer, DBM is trained as a video clip what is deep boltzmann machine includes still,... 105 ] utilize frequency spectra to train a stacked autoencoder is validated by four roller datasets... A detailed comparison of the standard Artificial neural Network ( DBN ) and batch regularization take... Necessary to compute the data-dependent statistics combat the vanishing gradient problem they designed a tensor auto-encoder by extending the autoencoder. 2D image node connections in the words of Hinton on Boltzmann machine training of DBM is structured., directed HDMs, we will discuss some of the stacked autoencoder for fault diagnosis final result! Or discriminatively which is too slow to be on or off KL between. Consist of directed layers, a regression BN [ 84 ] to every node in node...

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