LivingRoots Handmade participates in Who’s Next Paris SLRD ramping up production at largest apparel manufacturing unit in North East India. This is a problem which needs to be addressed. From the results, the capitals that contributed to a higher SI score the most were financial and physical. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Ian Scoones, All content in this area was uploaded by Ian Scoones on Jan 26, 2014, A brief review of the fundamental principles behind the sustainable livelihood approach of donor agencies, Agricultural intensification and rural sustainable livelihoods, Sustainable livelihoods in Southern Ethiopia, Sustainable rural livelihoods. As a result, these populations have been targeted for poverty alleviation by fisheries development programmes since the early 60's. Second, the livelihoods literature is replete with classifications and typologies, often contrasting ideal types with alternatives with pejorative ascriptions. Livelihoods perspectives have become increasingly central in discussions of rural development over the past few decades. Globalising Food provides an innovative contribution to the area of political economy of agriculture, food and consumption through a revealing investigation of the globalisation and restructuring of localised agricultural sectors and food systems. One of the persistent failings of livelihoods approaches has been the failure to address wider, global processes and their impingement on livelihood concerns at the local level. Item not yet held in Library. This is conditioned by histories of places and peoples, and their wider interactions with colonialism, state-making and globalisation. The move from diagrammatic checklist to framework – or more precisely the Sustainable Livelihoods Framework, with capital letters, or the Sustainable Livelihoods Approach, with an acronym, SLA, happened in the course of 1998. To better understand the relevance of this potential, this study analyses the economic and environmental robustness of 118 informally settled small-scale cocoa farmers in three districts in the Peruvian Amazon. As argued by Scoones and Wolmer (2003, 5): A sustainable livelihoods approach has encouraged … a deeper and critical reflection. In the present paper, we attempt to address the issue of poverty and rural livelihood strategies for the fishing communities of the Yaéré floodplains of the Lake Chad Basin (Cameroon, Africa). A strategy for people, environment and development, An overview paper for Only One Earth: Conference on Sustainable Development. The branded approaches began to be associated not just with analytical tools (frameworks and checklists), but normative positions. Poverty and livelihoods: whose reality counts? I would like to thank Jun Borras, Robert Chambers and Ingrid Nyborg for comments on an earlier draft of this paper. SLRD joins in the fight against Corona Virus. Later, agro-ecosystem analysis (Conway 1985) and rapid and participatory rural appraisal approaches (Chambers 2008) were added to the repertoire, expanding the range of methods and styles of field engagement. From 2011-2016, the Dynamic Drivers of Disease in Africa Consortium undertook a major ESPA-funded programme to advance understanding of the connections between animal-to-human disease transmission and environment in Africa. This study explores household’s perceptions of climate change and its implications on livelihood formation process using empirical data from Uganda. People's initiative and local knowledge enhances resilience to shocks and stresses. And such critics had a point. It is not just a matter of adding another ‘capital’ to the assets pentagon (Baumann 2000), with all the flawed assumptions of equivalence and substitutability inherent. Different people, because of their current asset base and livelihood options, are likely, given future trends, to end up just coping, moving to new livelihood options or getting out completely. The connection of the three words ‘sustainable’, ‘rural’ and ‘livelihoods’ as a term denoting a particular approach was possibly first made in 1986 in a hotel in Geneva during the discussion around the Food 2000 report for the Bruntdland Commission.3 Involving M.S. Such reflections therefore put into sharp relief the importance of complex institutional and governance arrangements, and the key relationships between livelihoods, power and politics. But what are the power relationships underlying this new discourse, and how do they in turn shape action? In particular, the paper highlights the problems arising from a simplistic application of synthetic frameworks which have come to dominate certain aspects of applied development discussion and practice over the past decade. A re-energised livelihoods perspective thus requires, first, a basic recognition of cross-scale dynamic change and, second, a more central place for considerations of knowledge, power, values and political change. While the economists in the development agencies were arguing for a growth agenda, based on ‘sound macro-economic principles’, political economists were also ready to point out the dangers of naïve localism and idealistic liberal analyses that ignore the structural forces of class and capital. To effectively address deforestation, however, requires broader integrated approaches that go far beyond the promotion of sustainable land-uses. 2007, Boyd et al. Such approaches must also illuminate the social and political processes of exchange, extraction, exploitation and empowerment, and so explore the multiple contingent consequences of globalisation on rural livelihoods. Background paper, ESRC Livelihoods Seminar, Sustainability science: the emerging research program, Bradford Centre for International Development, Rights and livelihoods approaches: exploring policy dimensions, Livelihood adaptation, public action and civil society: a review of the literature, Livelihoods and poverty: the role of migration – a critical review of the migration literature, Exploring the frontier of livelihoods research, Department of Agricultural Sciences, Imperial College, Sustainable livelihoods approaches in urban areas: general lessons, with illustrations from Indian examples, Resilience and sustainable development: building adaptive capacity in a world of transformations, In search of improved rural livelihoods in semi-arid regions through local management of natural resources: lessons from case studies in Zimbabwe, Typology of sociotechnical transition pathways, Sector approaches, sustainable livelihoods and rural poverty reduction, Conceptualising the household: issues of theory and policy in Africa, Policy arena: ‘missing link’ or analytically missing? Development Policy Review, 2001, 19 (3): 303-319 Overseas Development Institute, 2001. The sustainable livelihoods approach facilitates the identification of practical priorities for actions that are based on the views and interests of those concerned but they are not a panacea. As discussed below, although a more explicit attention to the theorisation of key concepts, with especial attention to the understanding of power and politics is clearly required, a more pluralist, hybrid vision is probably more appropriate if a solid, field-based, grounded empirical stance is to remain at the core. Instead, the argument goes, what is needed is a re-energising of livelihoods perspectives with new foci and priorities to meet these new challenges. But where do such perspectives come from, what are their conceptual roots, and what influences have shaped the way they have emerged? This is down in large part to disciplinary proclivities, separated out along the classic structure-agency axis of the social sciences. As with gender and other dimensions of social difference, questions of class must be central to any livelihoods analysis. It is intended for those who are interested in understanding the grassroots reality of the Indian rural financial sector. Dunn (1989 p.4) Introduction It is usually assumed that most, if not all, small scale fishing communities, particularly in tropical countries, represent the poorest and most disadvantaged part of rural societies (see for instance Smith, 1979, Smith 1981, World Bank 1982). More parochially, for those hooked into UK-focused debates about development, a key moment came in 1997 with the arrival of a new Labour government, with a development ministry, the Department for International Development (DfID), a vocal and committed minister, Clare Short, and a White Paper that committed explicitly to a poverty and livelihoods focus (see Solesbury 2003).6. Only in Zimbabwe has substantial redistribution of land taken place since independence, but here, as elsewhere in the region, the rights of small-scale landholders remain vulnerable and the conditions for agricultural livelihoods highly unfavourable. Thirdly, it is ‘dynamic’ in that it attempts to understand change, complex cause-and-effect relationships and ‘iterative chains of events’. The politics of knowledge and framing often gets kept under wraps. Our Projects . Others argued that this was ‘just new wine in old bottles’– a reinvention of the failed integrated rural development paradigm of the 1970s. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Ian Scoones, Livelihoods perspectives and rural development, The Journal of Peasant Studies, 10.1080/03066150902820503, 36, 1, (171-196), (2009). How is sustainability assessed? These four failures to engage – with processes of economic globalisation, with debates about politics and governance, with the challenges of environmental sustainability and with fundamental transformatory shifts in rural economies – have meant that the research and policy focus has shifted away from the contextual, trans-disciplinary and cross-sectoral insights from livelihood perspectives, often back to a predictable default of macro-economic analyses. Farm size, specialization in cocoa, and participation in associations positively influenced the economic performance of the households but had little effect on the quality of natural resource management and on the capacity to conserve forests. During the workshops, 126 participants made 21,600 recorded decisions about capacity allocations during 393 simulated years of rural life. Thus SLA could be said to be a practical framework for evidence-based intervention and has much logic resting behind it, especially in a world undergoing rapid change and where resources to support development interventions are inevitably limited. Which option is best, and for whom?,,,,,,, In addition, the present volume also investigates the effectiveness of government schemes to promote rural development. While accepting diverse, complex livelihoods as an empirical reality (certainly an advance from many other analyses), the assumption is that these are starting points for a future trajectory to something better. A concern for dynamic ecologies, history and longitudinal change, gender and social differentiation and cultural contexts meant that geographers, social anthropologists and socio-economists offered a series of influential rich-picture analyses of rural settings in this period.2 This defined the field of environment and development, as well as wider concerns with livelihoods under stress, with the emphasis on coping strategies and livelihood adaptation. : Technology and Change in Rice-growing Areas of Tamil Nadu and Sri Lanka. Yet livelihoods approaches have been accused of being good methods in search of a theory (O'Laughlin 2004). Type Journal Author(s) Scoones, I. Livelihoods in crisis? 4As adapted by Scoones (1998), Carney et al. School of Livelihood and Rural Development is a ISO9001 organisation. A rich description of livelihood complexity in the present was one thing, but what were future livelihoods going to look like – in 10, 20 or 50 years? A variety of definitions are offered in the literature, including, for example, ‘the means of gaining a living’ (Chambers 1995, vi) or ‘a combination of the resources used and the activities undertaken in order to live’.1 A descriptive analysis portrays a complex web of activities and interactions that emphasises the diversity of ways people make a living. And what tensions, conflicts and dissonances arise? Add to My Bookmarks Export citation. Livelihoods perspectives start with how different people in different places live. The various frameworks did not help either. Yet, livelihood perspectives must look simultaneously at both structure and agency and the diverse micro- and macro-political processes that define opportunities and constraints. The message of Sustainable Livelihoods and Rural Development is clear: livelihoods approaches are an essential lens on questions of rural development, but these need to be situated in a better understanding of political economy. These questions often remain unaddressed or only implicitly treated. While, as discussed earlier, some excellent work has been carried out on local-level power dynamics and institutional and organisational politics, the attention to power and politics must, of course, move beyond the local level to examine wider structures of inequality. Add to My Bookmarks Export citation. This is the theme of the final section of this paper. However, after 50 years of consistent aid to Ghana, donor assistance has not fared as expected to improve farmers’ livelihoods and agricultural productivity. Farming systems research was encouraged in a range of countries, with the aim of getting a more integrated, systems perspective on farm problems. An advisory committee was established, led by Diana Carney then of the Overseas Development Institute in London. Through processes of discursive framing – creating typologies and categories, defining inclusions and exclusions – this has forged a politics of livelihoods knowledge. Idealism, complexity, naïvety, lack of political nous and incompatibility with existing sectorally-based organisations were all accusations made. Davies and Hossain 1987, Hyden 1998, Hobley and Shields 2000, DfID 2004). Three dimensions are relevant. 3Robert Chambers (personal communication, October 2008), although, as he points out, there are various other earlier antecedents, including a paper for a 1975 Commonwealth Ministerial Meeting entitled ‘Policies for Future Rural Livelihoods’. Address. 2007). The “livelihoods approach” has been one of the most influential concepts in rural development in the past two decades. But where do such perspectives come from, what are their conceptual roots, and what influences have shaped the way they have emerged? Indeed, the UK government had already commissioned work in this area, with several research programmes underway, including one coordinated by the Institute of Development Studies (IDS) at the University of Sussex, with work in Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Mali. 15See for example, Murray (2001, 2002);;; Majority of the respondents observed climate changes in the last 10–20 years and perceived them to have affected their capital assets in the process of forming livelihoods. In this work, we define household livelihood vulnerability as the probability of falling under an income threshold. It has great potential for transfer to other rural contexts because it balances research components that are nomothetic (general) with ones that are ideographic (particular). Far from it: there is a rich and important history that goes back another 50 or more years where a cross-disciplinary livelihoods perspective has profoundly influenced rural development thinking and practice. This paper responds to these questions with an historical review of key moments in debates about rural livelihoods, identifying the tensions, ambiguities and challenges of such approaches. In the same way Pender (2004) identifies future livelihood pathways for the highlands of Central America and East Africa based on comparative advantages – in agricultural potential, market access, infrastructure provision and population densities, among other variables. Against the background of the stories of these young men and women, the meaning of livelihoods is discussed. Arce (2003), for example, offers the case of coca farming in Bolivia, asking whose livelihoods count – and to what and whose ends? Livelihoods perspectives have been central to rural development thinking and practice in the past decade. The Indonesian agricultural sector provides a high proportion of employment for the rural community. Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. Green Revolution? 2003). 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